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Korean basic grammar

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W.k.+1108 Song
6/16/2022 10:03:28 AM

Korean Basic Grammar


I will explain Korean grammar using Hangul(Korean Alphabet). In this lesson, you will learn the ultimate basic Korean grammar and the ultimate basic Korean words.


English structure


English basic grammar follows the structure:
SUBJECT(S) + VERB(V) + OBJECT(O)

For example, "I(S) study(V) Korean(O)".

Most language have an SVO grammar structure like the example above. The action leads object, so you know what is happening before you know what it's happening to.


Korean structure


Basic grammar in Korean, on the other hand, uses the order of:
SUBJECT(S) + OBJECT(O) + VERB(V)

Example 1)
나는 바나나를 먹어요.
  I   +  a banana  +  eat
(S).          (O).         (V).

Example 2)
오빠가 야구를 해요.
Big brother  +  baseball  +  play
     (S).                   (O).          (V).

Example 3)
나는 친구를 만나요.
   I   +  a friend  +  meet
 (S).       (O).           (V).



Korean Nouns and Particles


The first part of a sentence is always a noun. (Not only in Korean, but also in any language)

A noun in Korean is called "명사". If a noun turned into a plural by adding "들". A plural is called "복수".

Examples)

명사 |  복수
-----------
학생 |  학생
남자  남자
사람  사람
아이  아이

Korean nouns are used as subjects and objects.

The particles "이" and "가" are used when Korean nouns are used as subject. On the other hand, the topic markers "을" and "를" are used when a Korean noun is used as an object.
(A topic marker is a grammatical particle used to mark the topic of a sentence.)

Example) 지연 사과 먹고 있어요.
Explanation) The "이" above is the particle and "글" is the topic marker.

Example) 학생 읽어요.
Examplation) The "들" above makes the subject as plural, "이" is the particle, and "을" is the topic marker.



Korean Pronouns


I, Me ( as First person Singular )
저, 나
Example) 저를 믿으세요.
Example) 나는 춤춰요.

We ( as First person Plural )
저희, 저희들, 우리, 우리들
Example) 우리는 학교가요.
Example) 저희는 같은 반이에요.

You (as Second person Singular)
너, 자네, 그대, 당신
Example) 너는 어디가니?

You (as Second person Plural)
너희, 너희들, 너네, 너네들, 자네들, 그대들, 당신들
Example) 너희는 어디가니?

He, She, It ( as Third person Singular )
그, 그녀
Example) 그는 어디가니?

They ( as Third person Plural )
그들, 그녀들
Example) 그들은 어디가니?



Korean Adjectives


Adjectives describes and delivers a clear picture of nouns. Adjectives are called "형용사" in Korean. They usually takes the "~하다" form.
Note that Korean adjectives can be used as verbs. They are called descriptive verbs and appears at the end of a sentence.

Examples)
시원하다 => 물이 시원해요.
따뜻하다 => 물이 따듯해요.
깨끗하다 => 물이 깨끗해요.
피곤하다 => 나는 피곤하다.
건강하다 => 나는 건강하다.


But not all adjectives end with "~하다".

Examples)
많다
적다
크다
가깝다
멀다
비싸다
싸다
나쁘다

When an adjective describes a noun, it usually take "adjective + noun" form.

Examples)
비싼 + 시계
착한 + 남자
따뜻한 + 사람



Korean Verbs


Verbs are called "동사" in Korean. Many of verbs are spelled differently depending on certain grammar rules such as tenses.

Example)
자요 - Polite, Present tense
잤어요 - Polite, Past tense
잘거에요 - Polite, Future tense
자고 있어요 - Polite, Present progressive tense

"To be" in Korean

The verb "to be" in Korean is "이다". This is used to specify something. Or when the subject and predicate are the same.

Example) 저는 홍콩 사람이에요. (Present tense)
Example) 저는 홍콩 사람이었어요. (Past tense)
Example) 나는 가수에요. (Present tense)
Example) 나는 가수였어요. (Past tense)

"To have" in Korean
The verb "to have" in Korean is "있다". This is to express the existence of something.

Example) 여기 아이스크림이 있어요. (Present tense)
Example) 여기 아이스크림이 있었어요. (Past tense)

"To do" in Korean
The verb "to do" in Korean is "하다".
Example) 나는 노래해요. (Present tense)
Example) 나는 노래했어요. (Past tense)


Korean Adverbs

Korean adverbs help describe verbs and adjectives. They are called "부사" in Korean.
Many Korean adverbs are from other forms such as verbs and adjectives.

There are 3 common forms of Korean Adverbs, and they are "~이", "~게", "~으로".

Example) 완전하다 -> 완전히
Example) 편하다 -> 편히
Example) 솔직하다 -> 솔직히


Example) 빠르다 -> 빠르게
Example) 맛있다 -> 맛있게
Example) 멋지다 -> 멋지게

Example) 사적 -> 사적으로
Example) 공식 -> 공식적으로
Example) 일반 -> 일반적으로

Other Korean adverbs
There are also adverbs that aren't from other forms like "잘", "매우", "바로", etc.

Example) 나는 밥을 잘 먹어요.
Example) 그녀는 매우 예뻐요.
Example) 나는 바로 집으로 갔어요.


Korean Adverbs of Frequency
Korean adverbs of frequency are used to describe how often an adjective, action, or verb happens.
Some of them are "항상", "자주".

Example) 저는 항상 자전거를 타요.
Example) 동생은 자주 책을 읽어요.

Korean Adverbs of Place
Korean adverbs of place help describe where the event happens.
Some of them are "야외", "밖에".

Example) 야외에서 점심을 먹었어요.
Example) 밖에서 저녁을 먹었어요.



Korean Adverbs of Time

Korean adverbs of time help describe about the time.
Some of them are "지금", "매년".

Example) 저는 지금 집으로 갑니다.
Example) 매년 여름이 더워요.







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